z13: A Digital Business Ready Solution?

As per the usual next generation zSeries Server release, IBM announced their latest evolution on 13 January 2015, namely the z13. IBM describe this platform as the most powerful and secure system ever built:

  • First system able to process 2.5 billion transactions per day, built for mobile economy
  • Makes possible real-time encryption on all mobile transactions at scale
  • First mainframe system with embedded analytics providing real time transaction insights 17X faster than compared competitive systems at a fraction of the cost

At first glance, feeds and speeds generally don’t enthuse the audience, but if we dig deeper and acknowledge other recent IBM developments incorporating Apple, Twitter and Data Analytics announcements, we perhaps can draw some better business-facing conclusions. IBM have a clearly defined Cloud, Analytics, Mobile, Social & Security (CAMSS) initiative, seemingly based upon the IDC 3rd platform defined as Social, Mobile, Analytics & Cloud (SMAC).

Industry analysts predict that in the next 3 years and by 2017, SMAC (CAMSS) expenditure will account for 25%+ of total enterprise software market revenue, doubling from ~12% in 2012. In simple terms, this new expenditure opportunity represents $100+ Billion revenue. We can imagine that all major ISV’s will be wanting their share of this market…

Whichever classification you choose, IBM CAMSS or IDC SMAC, IT infrastructures and associated investment currently are and certainly will be heavily influenced by this new world computing paradigm. Like it or not, an ability to perform a transaction anywhere (Mobile), keeping everything simple and networked (Social Media), real time prediction of future customer requirements (Analytics), available anywhere (Mobile), for an alleged fraction of the cost (Cloud), makes sense for the 21st Century business. Ignore this new technology evolution at your peril as it will impact each and every area of the IT enterprise and associated resources, primarily software and supporting hardware.

Did you notice the difference between the IBM classification and IDC? IDC have not considered Security to be a consideration factor worthy of acronym (SMAC) inclusion. In today’s world of cybersecurity, that might be somewhat of an oversight, but we must assume that IDC consider cybersecurity to be a consideration for all of the Analytics, Cloud, Mobile & Social aspects, which of course it is!

If we consider the relative merits of technology platforms from a security viewpoint, the IBM z13 delivers EAL5+ security certification, whereas other non-Mainframe platforms can only currently claim EAL4+ certification.

It is estimated that 55%+ of enterprise (mission critical) transactions are processed by the IBM Mainframe, but this is based on pre mobile workloads. It therefore makes commercial sense for IBM to safeguard their flagship platform not only maintains the existing IBM Mainframe customer base, but captures new and mobile centric workloads.

Having considered the business requirements for today’s IT business, let’s now classify the new features of the z13 platform:

  • Up to 40% more total system capacity compared to the zEC12.
  • Up to 10 terabytes (TB) of available Redundant Array of Independent Memory (RAIM) real memory per server.
  • Cryptographic performance improvements with new Crypto Express5S.
  • Economies of scale with simultaneous multithreading delivering more throughput for Linux and zIIP-eligible workloads.
  • Improved performance of complex mathematical models, perfect for analytics processing, with Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD).
  • IBM zAware cutting-edge pattern recognition analytics for fast insight into system health extended to Linux on z Systems.
  • A reduction in elapsed time for I/O-bound batch jobs with new FICON Express16S versus FICON Express8S.
  • Support for larger memory configurations planned to be supported on z/OS systems, which can be used to improve transaction response times, lower CPU costs, simplify capacity planning and ease deploying memory-intensive workloads. (The IBM z13 offers up to 10 TB memory.)
  • I/O service time improvement when writing data remotely using the new zHPF Extended Distance II.
  • Support for up to 256 coupling CHPIDs, which provides enhanced connectivity and scalability for a growing number of coupling channel types.
  • IBM Integrated Coupling Adapter (ICA SR), which offers greater short reach coupling connectivity than existing link technologies and enables greater overall coupling connectivity per IBM z13 than prior server generations.
  • Capability to extend z/OS workload management policies into the SAN fabric.
  • New rack-mounted Hardware Management Console (HMC), helping to save space in the data center.
  • Non-raised floor option, offering flexible possibilities for the data center.
  • Optional water cooling, providing the ability to cool systems with user-chilled water.
  • Optional high-voltage dc power, which can help IBM z Systems clients save on their power bills.
  • Optional top exit power and I/O cabling designed to provide increased flexibility.
  • New IBM z BladeCenter Extension (zBX) Model 004 in support of heterogeneous resources managed by IBM z Unified Resource Manager.

As we all know, Moore’s Law had to end sometime soon and this is true for System z CPU chips. The zEC12 CPU was often claimed to be the fastest commercial processor, with a 32nm core and a 5.5 GHz rating. The z13 chip runs a 22 nm core at a 5 GHz, at first glance ~10% slower than the zEC12. The new z13 chip delivers a ~10% performance increase, due to advances in core design, with better branch prediction and pipelining in the core. Noteworthy, is the slightly slower clock speed of the z13 chip, reducing heat output, probably signifying that ~5 GHz is the ceiling for CPU chips in the near future.

However, for z13, the doubling of performance still apples for many other resources:

  • Cryptographic coprocessors performance (~2*)
  • Channel speed (~2*)
  • I/O bandwidth (~2*)
  • Memory/Cache performance (~2*)
  • Memory capacity (~3*)

Once again, classifying these technological advances in terms of mobile business, the z13 delivers real-time encryption of mobile transactions, protecting transaction data, delivering consistent response times for a quality customer experience. Overall, IBM claims the z13 delivers a potential for ~36% better response time, ~61% better throughput and ~17% lower cost per mobile transaction.

A major and subtle change introduced with the z13 is Simultaneous MultiThreading (SMT). SMT allows 2 active instruction streams per core, each dynamically sharing the core’s execution resources. SMT will be available in IBM z13 for workloads running on the Integrated Facility for Linux (IFL) and the IBM z Integrated Information Processor (zIIP).

Each software Operating System/Hypervisor has the ability to intelligently drive SMT in a way that is best for its unique requirements. z/OS SMT management consistently drives the cores to high thread density, in an effort to reduce SMT variability and deliver repeatable performance across varying CPU utilization, thus providing more predictable SMT capacity. z/VM SMT management optimizes throughput by spreading a workload over the available cores until it demands the additional SMT capacity.

From a capacity planning and performance measurement viewpoint, just a slight note of caution. Although the z13 CPU chip delivers increased CPU capacity, the raw speed is slower and there are considerations for SMT. A former IBM staffer, Bob Rogers has written a great article on this SMT subject matter, which should be on your reading list!

In conclusion, the z13 announcement is another step forward for zSeries Mainframes. If you consider this announcement as just another next generation zSeries Mainframe announcement, you’re not treating your business or yourself with the respect they deserve. Instead, please consider this z13 announcement as an evolution from an enterprise solution delivery viewpoint. Primarily, consider the 21st century business keywords, in no particular order, of Analytics, Cloud, Mobile, Social & Security.